This works alongside the family and in some cases tribes; this highly unsanitary, illegal, and unorthodox act is generally accepted and encouraged within the community. The decision to undergo the FGM process does not come from the girl herself but from their guardian or women in charge.
Several small studies have concluded that women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. One third reported reduced sexual feelings.
In Kenya, for example, the Kisi cut around age 10 and the Kamba at While we believe it is ok to stop the female body from producing life forms by implementing various types of methods, they just try to prevent the whole baby making process from happening in the first place; in this case using a very graphic and unethical.
Prevalence of female genital mutilation by country Percentage of the 15—49 group who have undergone FGM in 29 countries for which figures were available in  FGM is found mostly in what Gerry Mackie called an "intriguingly contiguous" zone in Africa—east to west from Somalia to Senegal, and north to south from Egypt to Tanzania.
Vesicovaginal or rectovaginal fistulae can develop holes that allow urine or faeces to seep into the vagina. Was your genital area sewn? This creates a tear which they gradually rip more and more until the opening is sufficient to admit the penis.
From the age of eight, girls are encouraged to stretch their inner labia using sticks and massage. In a study by Nigerian physician Mairo Usman Mandara, over 30 percent of women with gishiri cuts were found to have vesicovaginal fistulae holes that allow urine to seep into the vagina.
If it were to happen on the U. Was any flesh or something removed from the genital area? The opening is larger in women who are sexually active or have given birth by vaginal delivery, but the urethra opening may still be obstructed by scar tissue.
In half the countries for which national figures were available in —, most girls had been cut by age five. A similarity can be made with us in the U.
They could suggest better options but not put the pressure on the cultures that carry it out to change their ways.
In Eritrea, for example, a survey in found that all Hedareb girls had been infibulated, compared with two percent of the Tigrinyamost of whom fell into the "cut, no flesh removed" category. A systematic review of 56 studies suggested that over one in ten girls and women undergoing any form of FGM, including symbolic nicking of the clitoris Type IVexperience immediate complications, although the risks increased with Type III.
Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation.
So the same reaction can be expected from them. All of these groups are different but work together to make this practice widely accepted and common. The most professional way to handle any interaction from the U.
The prevalence rate for the 0—11 group in Indonesia is 49 percent According to the study, FGM was associated with an increased risk to the mother of damage to the perineum and excessive blood lossas well as a need to resuscitate the baby, and stillbirthperhaps because of a long second stage of labour.
This might be performed before marriage, and after childbirth, divorce and widowhood. Third-degree laceration tearsanal-sphincter damage and emergency caesarean section are more common in infibulated women.
The review also suggested that there was under-reporting. If society exposes us to only one set of moral values in life, the morals of another society will seem abnormal.
In order for a society to function efficiently, its members must concur. Within the cultures that practice FGM, there are different groups of people that contribute.
Those men who do manage to penetrate their wives do so often, or perhaps always, with the help of the "little knife".
For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia. This function of the whole is also an important one; since it is acceptable in a lot of the tribes that puts a hinder on the effort to stop it.
The reasons for this were unclear, but may be connected to genital and urinary tract infections and the presence of scar tissue.
In those settings all types of FGM were found to pose an increased risk of death to the baby: In Somalia and Sudan the situation was reversed:FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION/CUTTING: A GLOBAL CONCERN UNICEF’S DATA WORK ON FGM/C SUPPORT FOR DATA COLLECTION DATA ANALYSIS AND DISSEMINATION UNICEF supports the collection of nationally representative data on Women with Female Genital Mutilation’, Fertility and Sterility, vol.
93, no. 3,pp. – To study female genital mutilation and its effect on female sexual function, Alexandria, Egypt Methods A case–control study was conducted on a convenient sample of circumcised women with their control from 4 randomly selected primary health care centers. Debates about female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) have polarized opinion between those who see it as an abuse of women’s health and human rights, to be ‘eradicated’, and those who may or may not oppose the practice, but see a double standard on the part of western campaigners who fail to challenge other unnecessary surgical interventions — such as male circumcision or cosmetic surgery — in their.
Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) means piercing, cutting, removing, or sewing closed all or part of a girl's or woman's external genitals for no medical reason.
The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women defines "violence against women" as encompassing, inter alia, "female genital mutilation and.
Research gaps in the care of women with female genital mutilation: an analysis. Authors. J Abdulcadir, a case control study of immigrant women giving birth in Sweden. Projections of Flows of Migrant Women with Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Toward .Download